An example can be seen in Armenia. Shortly after gaining independence, Armenian physicians acquired large numbers of ultrasound machines, often benefiting from assistance from the extensive Armenian Diaspora. This was associated with a rapid rise in the male:female sex ratio to a level that now exceeds that in China. There are, however, many other examples. A recent study of obstetric care in a region near Moscow found that many of the obstetric interventions were ineffective, such as physical therapies based on light, electricity or magnetism, administered at some stage during pregnancy. Other treatments were unnecessarily unpleasant, such as the near universal practice of administering intra-muscular injections of vitamins. Yet, others were potentially harmful, such as the administration of diethylstilbestrol, even though it has been known since the 1960s that it causes vaginal cancer in those exposed in utero. Many of the drugs used, including a diverse range of infusions administered almost universally to pregnant women, have never been subject to rigorous evaluation.