quarta-feira, 13 de agosto de 2008

Apnéia do sono e AVC

Increased Risk of Stroke in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Sleep Apnea. A 10-Year Follow-Up
Fredrik Valham MD, Thomas Mooe MD, PhD, Terje Rabben MD, Hans Stenlund PhD, Urban Wiklund PhD, and Karl A. Franklin MD, PhD*
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Karl.Franklin@Lung.umu.se
Background—The effect of sleep apnea on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity is mainly unknown. We aimed to study whether sleep apnea is related to stroke, death, or myocardial infarction in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease.
Methods and Results—A total of 392 men and women with coronary artery disease referred for coronary angiography were examined by use of overnight sleep apnea recordings. Sleep apnea, defined as an apnea-hypopnea index 5, was recorded in 54% of the patients. All patients were followed up prospectively for 10 years, and no one was lost to follow-up. Stroke occurred in 47 (12%) of 392 patients during follow-up. Sleep apnea was associated with an increased risk of stroke, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 6.09, P=0.005), independent of age, body mass index, left ventricular function, diabetes mellitus, gender, intervention, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, and smoking. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index of 5 to 15 and patients with an apnea-hypopnea index 15 had a 2.44 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 5.52) and 3.56 (95% confidence interval 1.56 to 8.16) times increased risk of stroke, respectively, than patients without sleep apnea, independent of confounders (P for trend=0.011). Death and myocardial infarction were not related to sleep apnea. Intervention in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention was related to a longer survival but did not affect the incidence of stroke.
Conclusions—Sleep apnea is significantly associated with the risk of stroke among patients with coronary artery disease who are being evaluated for coronary intervention.
Key words: sleep apnea syndromes • coronary disease • stroke • prognosis • risk factors • myocardial infarction

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